Secondary speech is actually speech that is claimed and you can altered for the

Secondary speech is actually speech that is claimed and you can altered for the

  • At Query v. 3a, examples are given of uses ‘with indirect or direct question as the second target’. An example with an indirect question is: ‘“He was in ‘a crew’”, he says. I ask him exactly what you to definitely entailed.’

secondary message

For example, in ‘Paul roared that he demanded his rights’, that he demanded his rights is inlead speech feelcause it is a report of what Paul roared. In direct speech this would be: ‘“I demand my rights,” Paul roared.’

  • At Respond to v. 1b(b), uses ‘with direct or indirect speech’ are exemplified. An example with indirect speech is: ‘It was answered to him that?brand new Abbot have to stay static in their monastery away from St. Edmund’s.’


The infinitive form of a verb is the basic form, unmarked for demanding, people, or matter. In English, the infinitive is often preceded by to (in which circumstances it is sometimes called a to-infinitive), as in these examples:

  • I want to hop out.
  • So you can err is human; to help you forgive, divine.

The infinitive may also be used without to (in which case it is sometimes called a bare infinitive), for example after modal verbs and certain other verbs:

  • You must leave.
  • Help me discover this.

Infinitives can function in various ways in a sentence, for example as grammatical subject (as in ‘So you’re able to err is human’), object (as in ‘I want to depart‘), or fit (as in ‘This is difficult understand‘). An infinitive can introduce an infinitive term, as in ‘to understand her meaning’, which can likewise function as a subject, object, complement, etc.

Throughout the OED, infinitive is used while the standard name to mention on infinitive having so you’re able to; to-infinitive is employed if there is a distinction to your uncovered infinitive.

  • Afraid adj. geek2geek 1c is defined as ‘With infinitive: in fear of the consequences (to oneself) of doing something; not having courage to’. Examples include ‘He was afraid to go home’ and ‘Perhaps she has a Spanish lover and is afraid to tell you.’
  • At You would like v. dos 10, uses such as ‘We need not be anxious about their feelings for us’ are described as ‘With bare infinitive’. Uses such as ‘Wintu speakers need not to annoy with tense’ are described as ‘With to-infinitive.’
  • At Deny v. step 1 We, ‘To ples are described as ‘With infinitive clause as object.’ These include ‘My trembling Limbs Refuse so you’re able to happen how much they weigh‘ and ‘She refused to help you admit fags was in fact harmful to this lady.’

inflection | inflected | inflectional

In some languages, the form of a word varies according to its grammatical function (e.g. whether a noun is only 1 or plural, or whether a verb is in the present or early in the day tense). These forms are called inflections, and a word which possesses such forms is said to be inflected. For example, in English the word walked is inflected, showing the past tense form of walk; the suffix -ed is an inflectional suffix.

Old English possessed a large number of inflected forms: for example, forms for case, intercourse, and number in nouns, pronouns, and adjectives; and forms for tense, person, number, and vibe in verbs. However, as the language changed, many of these word forms became difficult to distinguish from each other, and other means of expressing the grammatical relationships between words became more important, such as word order and the use of prepositions and reliable and modal verbs. In modern English, verbs are still inflected for tense (walk/walked), and to a limited extent for person and number (walk/walks; was/were); pronouns inflect for case (I/me, he/him, etc.), number (I/we), and gender (he/she/it); some adjectives inflect for comparative and superlative forms (-er, -est); and nouns inflect for number (banana/bananas). However, the old case system has mostly disappeared, as have the three grammatical genders, and the surviving inflections are far fewer in number than before.


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